Studies performed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident clarified the common features of radiation-induced thyroid cancer, and the oncogene-/ antioncogene-spectrum was determined, which can differentiate radiation-induced thyroid cancer from sporadical forms. Genes like RET/PTC, RAS, BRAF, MET and TRK participants in thyroid cancer pathogenesis also have a demonstrated role in papillary carcinogenesis. Many studies analysed different immunohistochemical tumormarkers (Ki-67, p53, PCNA etc.) in malignant thyroid tissue, but their prognostical value has not yet been determined exactly. Investigations of new tumormarkers are in course. Recently, researches are focussed to determine the diagnostical and prognotical value of immunohistochemical tumormarkers in fine needle-aspiration biopsy. This paper has the aim to present the oncogene, antioncogene and tumormarker spectrum involved in thyroid carcinogenesis, and to summarize their diagnostical and prognostical value based on new research data.
Keywords: papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, oncogenes, antioncogenes.