The topic chosen for this year’s postgraduate course in internal medicine organized by the Transsylvanian Museum Society was the peripheral venopathology. The considerations for this choice were: 1) The high incidence of the venous affections. Epidemiological studies put their incidence at 15-20% in males and 25-30% in females. 2) The severity of their acute, life endangering complications (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). 3) Their chronic complications (chronic venous insufficiency, dermatitis and ulcer) are altering the quality of life. 4) The II. Clinic of Internal Medicine from Târgu-Mureş has gathered a lot of experience in recent years regarding this topic. A short historic retrospective shows that this illness is already present in ancient documents. Present data shows a high incidence and prevalence of this pathology and also the severity of this thrombo-embolic complications, an important factor of morbidity and mortality (between the firs five causes in Europe and USA). Their long-term complications (dermatitis, ulcer) are also important and requires a lot of sacrifice from national insurances. Phlebology is a multidisciplinary domain, (internal medicine, angiology, surgery, dermatology).The importance of the vein thrombosis is demonstrated also by the emerging new branch of medicine: the vascular hematology.