Summary: The usage of 23 g and 25 g transconjunctival vitrectomy systems is associated with less surgically induced trauma. The concept of transconjunctival surgery has the potential to increase the efficiency of a variety of vitreoretinal surgeries and possibly hasten the postoperative recovery and outcomes in several conditions by simplifying the surgical procedure. The different stainings (triamcinolone, indocyanine green, tripan blue) applied during vitreoretinal surgical procedures provide better and more accurate visualization of the posterior vitreous cortex, epiretinal membranes or the internal limiting membrane of the retina. The new high-power xenon light sources, the chandelier-type light pipes are essential for a real bimanual vitrectomy. These advances in instrumentation are very helpful in the surgical treatment of difficult proliferative retinopathy cases and in the management of retinal detachments associated with retinopathy of prematurity.