Advances in neonatology have made possible the survival of infants born before 32 weeks of gestation and with a birth weight of less than 1500 grams. The lower the gestational age at birth and the lower the birth weight is, the more likely the infant is to develop ROP, that’s why ophthalmologic screening is very important. Our intention was to perform the eye examination of the premature babies at risk of developing ROP, to determine the incidence and the most important risk factors of ROP . We realized the eye examination with the indirect ophthalmoscope. The results are satisfying, we found only stage 1 and 2 of ROP and the evolution of these is favorable. Concerning the high frequency and the potential complications of ROP, the ophthalmologic screening, according to international screening protocols, is an obligatory requirement of the neonatology care. The current methods of ROP treatment (laser-therapy, vitrectomy) and the possibility of functional failure of the intervention, justify the importance of preventing premature birth and the intensive neonatology follow-up.